Effect of shock waves on macrophages: A possible role in tissue regeneration and remodeling
Introduction: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is broadly used as a non-surgical therapy in various diseases for its pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the molecular mechanisms translating tissue exposure to shock waves (SW) in a biological response with potential therapeutic activity are largely unknown. As macrophages take part in both the onset and amplification of the inflammatory response, and well in its resolution, we investigated the effect of SW on their biology.
Methods: Human monocyte-derived macrophages were polarized to classic (M1) pro-inflammatory macrophages or alternative (M2) anti-inflammatory macrophages and exposed to SW ad different intensities. Expression levels of marker genes of macrophage activation were measured by qPCR at different time points.
Results: SW did not induce activation of resting macrophages at any energy level used. Conversely, when used at low energy SW caused a significant inhibition of some M1 marker genes (CD80, COX2, CCL5) in M1 macrophages and a significant synergistic effect for some M2 marker genes (ALOX15, MRC1, CCL18) in M2 macrophages. SW also affected cytokine and chemokine production, inducing in particular a significant increase in IL-10 and reduction in IL-1β production.
Conclusions: Macrophage exposure to low energy SW dampens the induction of the pro-inflammatory profile characterizing M1 macrophages and promotes the acquisition of an anti-inflammatory profile synergizing with macrophage alternative activation.
Keywords: ALOX15; Inflammation; Macrophages; Shock waves.
Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shock wave therapy for acute and chronic soft tissue wounds: a feasibility study
Background: Nonhealing wounds are a major, functionally-limiting medical problem impairing quality of life for millions of people each year. Various studies report complete wound epithelialization of 48 to 56% over 30 to 65 d with different treatment modalities including ultrasound, topical rPDGF-BB, and composite acellular matrix. This is in contrast to comparison control patients treated with standard wound care, demonstrating complete epithelialization rates of 25 to 39%. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) may accelerate and improve wound repair. This study assesses the feasibility and safety of ESWT for acute and chronic soft-tissue wounds.
Study design: Two hundred and eight patients with complicated, nonhealing, acute and chronic soft-tissue wounds were prospectively enrolled onto this trial between August 2004 and June 2006. Treatment consisted of debridement, outpatient ESWT [100 to 1000 shocks/cm(2) at 0.1 mJ/mm(2), according to wound size, every 1 to 2 wk over mean three treatments], and moist dressings.
Results: Thirty-two (15.4%) patients dropped out of the study following first ESWT and were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis as incomplete healing. Of 208 patients enrolled, 156 (75%) had 100% wound epithelialization. During mean follow-up period of 44 d, there was no treatment-related toxicity, infection, or deterioration of any ESWT-treated wound. Intent-to-treat multivariate analysis identified age (P = 0.01), wound size < or =10 cm(2) (P = 0.01; OR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.80), and duration < or =1 mo (P < 0.001; OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.55) as independent predictors of complete healing.
Conclusions: The ESWT strategy is feasible and well tolerated by patients with acute and chronic soft tissue wounds. Shock wave therapy is being evaluated in a Phase III trial for acute traumatic wounds.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy: An Emerging Treatment Modality for Retracting Scars of the Hands
Prolonged and abnormal scarring after trauma, burns and surgical procedures often results in a pathologic scar. We evaluated the efficacy of unfocused shock wave treatment, alone or in combination with manual therapy, on retracting scars on the hands. Scar appearance was assessed by means of the modified Vancouver Scar Scale; functional hand mobility was evaluated using a range-of-motion scale, whereas a visual analogue score was implemented for detecting any improvements in referred pain. Additionally, biopsy specimens were collected for clinico-pathologic correlation. For each active treatment group, statistically significant improvements in modified Vancouver Scar Scale were recorded as early as five treatment sessions and confirmed 2 wk after the last treatment session. Analogous results were observed when assessing pain and range of movement. Histopathological examination revealed significant increases in dermal fibroblasts in each active treatment group, as well as in neoangiogenetic response and type-I collagen concentration.
Keywords: Collagen; ESWT; Histopathologic features; Regeneration; Resolution; Retracting scar; Scarring.
Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.